Bronfenbrenner Ecological Systems Theory
This is definitely not a SEM anymore. So, what is the story this heuristic conceptual model wants to tell?
- Complexity: The model looks quite complex. The development of a child is affected by many complex relationships.
- Simultaneity: The development of a child is impacted by different type of environmental settings (or systems) simultaneously.
- Importancy: Because the child is placed in the center, this model seems to imply that the micro system is most important for the development.
- Interdependency: The arrows seem to imply that there is interaction (or interdependencies) between adjacent layers and that within each environmental setting different actors or agents play a role.
Theory of Reasoned Action
Or Theory of Planned Behavior
This actually looks quite similar to the more formal conceptual models we discussed earliers. However, we do see some interesting tweaks.
- We see that we can play with the line type (dashed or continuous) and give them a different meaning.
- We also see that the arrows from Attitude toward behavior X and Subjective norm concerning behavior X are combined. So, both of them are necessary conditions in order to come to an Intention to perform behavior X. Thus with more heuristic conceptual models you can make a distinction between necessary conditions and sufficient conditions for the outcome.
If you are interested multiple causality and in the distinction between necessary conditions, sufficient conditions and ‘Insufficient but Non-redundant part of an Unnecessary but Sufficient’ conditions you may want to have a look at necessary-condition-analysis and Qualitative Comparative Analysis
- Maslow’s hierarchy of needs model.
- The policy cycle
- The empirical cycle
- Constrained choice model